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Runes

Here is a listing of historical runes, to be precise the ones that have made it into the Unicode standard. Fantasy-derivatives are not listed. This should allow the reader to decrypt most historical runic inscriptions.

The oldest well-known runic alphabet is the elder futhark, named after its first six characters. The elder futhark was in use roughly from 150 CE to 800 CE and contains 24 runes. It co-existed with the Anglo-Saxon futhorc, which shares many runes with the futhark, but also has extra characters. Around 800 CE the elder futhark was simplified into the younger futhark, a smaller alphabet of only 16 runes that remained in use until about 1100 CE. By then the need for flexibility prompted writers to expand the number of characters again, leading to medieval runes. There were other runic alphabets too, like the Hälsinge, Marcomannic and Dalecarnian runes, but all these are omitted here.

Each rune is represented with:

Note that you must have a runic font installed to be able to view the runic characters. A good candidate is TITUS Cyberbit Basic.

Image Latin Elder futhark Futhorc Younger futhark Other Meaning
Fehu f (16A0) Fehu (16A0) Feoh (16A0) Fé wealth, cattle
v (16A1) V
Uruz u (16A2) Uruz (16A3) Ur / Yr (16A3) Úr aurochs / water
y (16A4) Y
w (16A5) W
Thurisaz th (16A6) Thurisaz (16A6) Thor (16A6) Thurs Thor, giant
th (16A7) Eth
Ansuz a (16A8) Ansuz (16A9) Ós / (16AA) Ác / (16AB) Æsc (16AC) / (16AD) Óss Ansuz
o (16AE) O
? (16AF) Oe
? (16B0) On
Raido r (16B1) Raido (16B1) Rad (16B1) Reið ride, yourney
Kauna k (16B2) Kauna(n) (16B3) Cen (16B4) Kaun torch / ulcer
g (16B5) G
? (16B6) Eng
Gebo g (16B7) Gebo (16B7) Gyfu (16B8) Gar gift
Wunjo w (16B9) Wunjo (16B9) Wynn joy
Haglaz h (16BA) Hag(a)laz (16BB) Hægl (16BC) / (16BD) Hagall hail
Naudiz n (16BE) Naudiz (16BE) Nyð (16C0) / (16BF) Nauðr need
Isaz i (16C1) Isaz (16C1) Is (16C1) Isa ice
e (16C2) E
Jeran j (16C3) Jera(n) (16C4) Ger / (16E1) Ior (16C5) / (16C6) Ár year, harvest
Iwaz ei (16C7) Eih(w)az (16C7) Eoh yew
Pertho p (16C8) PerÞo (16C8) Peorð pear (?)
Algiz z (16C9) Algiz (16C9) Eolh (16E6) / (16E7) Yr (16E8) Icelandic Yr elk (?)
Sowilo s (16CA) Sowilo (16CB) Sigel (16CB) / (16CC) Sol sun
c (16CD) C
z (16CE) Z
Tiwaz t (16CF) Tewaz (16CF) Tir (16CF) / (16D0) Tyr Tiwaz
d (16D1) D
Berkanan d (16D2) Berkanan (16D2) Beorc (16D2) / (16D3) Bjarken birch
p (16D4) dotted P
p (16D5) open P
Ehwaz e (16D6) Ehwaz (16D6) E(o)h horse
Mannaz m (16D7) Mannaz (16D7) Mann (16D8) / (16D9) Maðr man
Laukaz l (16DA) Laguz / Laukaz (16DA) Lagu (16DA) Lögr lake / leek
p (16DB) dotted L
Ingwaz ng (16DC) Ingwaz (16DD) Ing Ingwaz
Dagaz d (16DE) Dagaz (16DE) Dæg day
Othalan o (16DF) OÞalan (16DF) Eðel heritage, estate
ea (16E0) Ear grave
kw (16E2) Cweorth pear (?)
k (16E3) Calc chalice
kk (16E4) Cealc chalice
st (16E5) Stan stone
q (16E9) Q
x (16EA) X
(16EB) single punctuation
(16EC) multiple punctuation
(16ED) cross punctuation
- (16EE) Arlaug symbol 17th year
- (16EF) Tvimadaur symbol 18th year
- (16F0) Belghtor symbol 19th year